Business Studies

Scope of ethics in business is in which area(s) _______________-.


ANSWER

All of the above


SOLUTION

SCOPE OF BUSINESS ETHICS

Ethical problems and phenomena arise across all the functional areas of companies and at all levels within the company.

Ethics in Compliance

Compliance is about obeying and adhering to rules and authority. The motivation for being compliant could be to do the right thing out of the fear of being caught rather than a desire to be abiding by the law. An ethical climate in an organization ensures that compliance with law is fuelled by a desire to abide by the laws. Organizations that value high ethics comply with the laws not only in letter but go beyond what is stipulated or expected of them.

Ethics in Finance

The ethical issues in finance that companies and employees are confronted with include:

 In accounting – window dressing, misleading financial analysis.

 Related party transactions not at arm’s length

 Insider trading, securities fraud leading to manipulation of the financial markets.

 Executive compensation.

• Bribery, kickbacks, over billing of expenses, facilitation payments.

• Fake reimbursements

 

Ethics in Human Resources

Human resource management (HRM) plays a decisive role in introducing and implementing ethics. Ethics should be a pivotal issue for HR specialists. The ethics of human resource management (HRM) covers those ethical issues arising around the employer-employee relationship, such as the rights and duties owed between employer and employee.

 

The issues of ethics faced by HRM include:

 Discrimination issues i.e. discrimination on the bases of age, gender, race, religion, disabilities, weight etc.

 Sexual harassment.

 Affirmative Action.

• Issues surrounding the representation of employees and the democratization of the workplace, trade ization.

• Issues affecting the privacy of the employee: workplace surveillance, drug testing.

• Issues affecting the privacy of the employer: whistle-blowing.

 Issues relating to the fairness of the employment contract and the balance of power between employer and employee.

 Occupational safety and health.

Companies tend to shift economic risks onto the shoulders of their employees. The boom of performance-related pay systems and flexible employment contracts are indicators of these newly established forms of shifting risk.

 

Ethics in Marketing

Marketing ethics is the area of applied ethics which deals with the moral principles behind the operation and regulation of marketing. The ethical issues confronted in this area include:

• Pricing: price fixing, price discrimination, price skimming.

• Anti-competitive practices like manipulation of supply, exclusive dealing arrangements, tying arrangements etc.

• Misleading advertisements

 Content of advertisements.

• Children and marketing.

 Black markets, grey markets.

 

Ethics of Production

This area of business ethics deals with the duties of a company to ensure that products and production processes do not cause harm. Some of the more acute dilemmas in this area arise out of the fact that there is usually a degree of danger in any product or production process and it is difficult to define a degree of permissibility, or the degree of permissibility may depend on the changing state of preventative technologies or changing social perceptions of acceptable risk.

• Defective, addictive and inherently dangerous products and

• Ethical relations between the company and the environment include pollution, environmental ethics, and carbon emissions trading.

 Ethical problems arising out of new technologies for eg. Genetically modified food

 Product testing ethics.

The most systematic approach to fostering ethical behaviour is to build corporate cultures that link ethical standards and business practices.

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